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See the list of software installed on your Debian|Ubuntu

To see the list of the packages installed on your system running Debian|Ubuntu just run:

$ dpkg --get-selections
acpi install
acpi-support-base install
acpid install
adduser install
analog install
apache2 install
apache2-doc install
apache2-mpm-prefork install
apache2-utils install
apache2.2-bin install
apache2.2-common install

If you are looking for specific package you can pipe the output to grep, for example:

$ dpkg --get-selections | grep nmap
nmap install

You can as well locate the files that belong to the package by running:

$ dpkg -L nmap
/.
/usr
/usr/bin
/usr/bin/ndiff
/usr/bin/ncat
/usr/bin/nmap
/usr/lib
/usr/lib/nmap
/usr/lib/nmap/nselib-bin
/usr/share
/usr/share/doc
/usr/share/doc/nmap
/usr/share/doc/nmap/leet-nmap-ascii-art.txt
/usr/share/doc/nmap/device-types.txt.gz
/usr/share/doc/nmap/changelog.gz
/usr/share/doc/nmap/copyright
/usr/share/doc/nmap/nmap.usage.txt.gz
/usr/share/doc/nmap/nmap_gpgkeys.txt.gz
/usr/share/doc/nmap/win32-installer-zenmap-buildguide.txt
/usr/share/doc/nmap/changelog.Debian.gz

To see the version of the package that is installed/available:

$ dpkg --list nmap

This will give you:

Desired=Unknown/Install/Remove/Purge/Hold
| Status=Not/Inst/Conf-files/Unpacked/halF-conf/Half-inst/trig-aWait/Trig-pend
|/ Err?=(none)/Reinst-required (Status,Err: uppercase=bad)
||/ Name                              Version               Architecture          Description
+++-=================================-=====================-=====================-========================================================================
ii  nmap                              6.00-0.3              amd64                 The Network Mapper
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